The airport said the maintenance is being scheduled during a "seasonal lull" when there are fewer passengers.
More than 1,100 aircraft pass through each day. The upgrades have been planned to increase safety and boost capacity for the future.
Concrete will be used to strengthen the runway and taxiways, while 60,000 tonnes of asphalt will be placed on the surface.
Dubai Airports chief executive Paul Griffiths said: “In the months ahead we will be working closely with Dubai Aviation Engineering Projects, airlines and other stakeholders to ensure we optimise service and capacity during this period next year and minimise the impact on our customers.
"While we regret any inconvenience this may cause to our airline customers and our passengers, these upgrades are absolutely necessary to heighten safety, boost capacity and pave the way for future growth.”